Factors Which Affect Distribution of Population
Human Resource of Class 8
- Landforms : Plains have the highest concentrations of population due to the flat topography, which is suitable for agriculture, industry and the development of transport facilities. Plateaus are less populated than plains. Mountains have the lowest concentrations of population.
- Climate : Regions having extermely hot or cold climate are thinly populated as are regions that do not receive much rainfall. Region with moderate climate and rainfall, like the region having monsoon climate, are heavily populated.
- Soil : Fertile soils provide suitable land for agriculture. Fertile plains such as Ganga and Brahmaputra in India, Hwang-He, Chang Jiang in China and the Nile in Egypt are densely populated.
- Water : As water is a basic necessity of life, human settlements always develop near sources of water. Thus, areas having an abundant supply of water are densely populated, while arid regions like deserts ate thinly populated.
- Resources : Areas that are rich in natural resources like minerals and sources of power usually support large populations. The discovery of minerals often encourages people to migrate to the site of the discovery. Such migrations took place after the discovery of goldfields in North America, Australia and South Africa.
NON Physical Factors
Sociol-economic and cultural factors influence the distribution of population. Political stability, the availability of educational and health-care facilities, and the presence of industries and employment opportunities are some of the conditions that encourage people to settle in an area.
Centres of religious or cultural activity also attract people. Thus, cities like Tokyo, New York, Mumbai, Bangalore, etc., are crowded because they are centres of industry and commerce, while Varanasi is crowded because it is a centre of religion, learning and arts.